Date of publication: 2017-07-09 15:14
I am torn as to whether I agree that research under this theory should shift down a path that I think may de-emphasize human agency a great deal. I struggle to imagine that the hypothetical child approaches the TV with a total lack of need the need may be as simple as the need to connect with his environment which leads him to the TV in the room, then perhaps the program inspires additional needs. I can, however, see the empirical strength in working backwards toward a need to alleviate the weaknesses of the variance in typologies and self-reported needs.
Personally I think that the Echo Chamber is merely an extension of the UG Theory. These Social Media users have actively chosen to stay within the echo chamber, because it does fulfill some form of psychological motivation and need, such as affirmation and reinforcement of certain values, (Dembo, 6977) and for enhancing social connections (Shao, 7559). Although we have chosen to be within our social bubble, it is still an active process we are still deriving different sorts of gratification from the way we are choosing to use our social networks, UGM, and the Internet in general.
The fixed interval schedule uses a timing device of some sort. If the rat presses the bar at least once during a particular stretch of time (say 75 seconds), then he gets a goodie. If he fails to do so, he doesn 8767 t get a goodie. But even if he hits that bar a hundred times during that 75 seconds, he still only gets one goodie! One strange thing that happens is that the rats tend to 8775 pace 8776 themselves: They slow down the rate of their behavior right after the reinforcer, and speed up when the time for it gets close.
Adlerian theory and practice have proven especially productive as applied to the growth and development of children. Adlerians believe that "a misbehaving child is a discouraged child" and that helping children to feel valued, significant, and competent is often the most effective strategy in coping with difficult child behaviors.
This is a technique quite near and dear to me because I did in fact have a spider phobia, and did in fact get rid of it with systematic desensitization. It worked so well that, after one session (beyond the original scenario-writing and muscle-training session) I could go out an pick up a daddy-long-legs. Cool.
Business purchases that fall into this category might include such things as office furniture and design, advertising and design, and perhaps even the hiring of certain employees.
Adlerians are concerned with understanding the unique and private beliefs and strategies (one's life style) that each individual creates in childhood. This cognitive schema and life style serve as the individual's reference for attitudes, behaviors, and one's private view of self, others, and the world. It is when we have looked at our early life experiences, examined the patterns of behavior that repeat themselves in our lives, and the methods by which we go about trying to gain significance and belonging that healing, growth, and change occur.
Both freedom and dignity are examples of what Skinner calls mentalistic constructs -- unobservable and so useless for a scientific psychology. Other examples include defense mechanisms, the unconscious, archetypes, fictional finalisms, coping strategies, self-actualization, consciousness, even things like hunger and thirst. The most important example is what he refers to as the homunculus -- Latin for 8775 the little man 8776 -- that supposedly resides inside us and is used to explain our behavior, ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self, and, of course, personality.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance is the psychological conflict that results from holding two contradictory or incompatible beliefs or attitudes. For example, one can like a person, but disapprove of their habits. The theory suggests that a person looks for balance in their beliefs. Therefore, in order to reduce dissonance, one will avoid hearing opposing viewpoints or change their beliefs to match their actions.